澳门皇冠app官网的第一任总统, 27-year-old 塞缪尔·斯特林·谢尔曼, 他是佛蒙特州人，到南方来改善他虚弱的身体. 他在塔斯卡卢萨开了一所预备学校, tutored in ancient languages at the University of Alabama and served as UA's librarian. 他的名声吸引了那些为马里昂新成立的霍华德学院寻找校长的人的注意.
谢尔曼接受了霍华德学院的校长职位，尽管校长警告说，浸信会教徒将无法维持他们的新学校. 这是一个伟大的信仰之举, because when Howard College opened in 1842 it consisted of a single wooden building and had no students, no faculty and minimal resources. 课程设置如此有限，以至于当当地报纸准备宣布“霍华德大学”开学时,谢尔曼去了印刷厂，把印刷本改成了“霍华德英语与古典学院”——这是对这所学院更谦虚、更准确的描述.
By the end of the first year of operation, Howard College had 31 students. 那一年的大部分时间, Sherman was the college's only professor, 学费收入加起来甚至不够支付他的食宿费. 据说，谢尔曼不得不推着独轮车在马里恩挨家挨户地乞讨书籍，为学院建立一个图书馆.
Conditions at Howard gradually improved in the decade of Sherman’s presidency, 1852年，他觉得是时候继续前进了. 内战结束后，他再次造访马里恩, and was celebrated for the kindness he showed in visiting Confederate prisoners of war in Federal prisons, and for his service to Howard College.
South Carolina native Henry Talbird served as a Baptist pastor in Tuscaloosa and Montgomery before joining the faculty of Howard College. 他在学院只教了六个月神学，然后在1852年接替霍华德校长塞缪尔·斯特林·谢尔曼. 随后，塔伯德主持了近十年的相对繁荣时期, 1854年，一场毁灭性的大火摧毁了学院的大部分物质资源. Talbird’s service to Howard effectively ended in 1862, 他接受了阿拉巴马州第41步兵团上校的军衔.
Though president for only three years, 杰贝兹·拉马尔·门罗·库里 is among the most distinguished and widely-recognized of Samford’s early leaders. 这位土生土长的乔治亚人在塔拉迪加从事法律工作, Alabama, 在当选为美国总统之前，他曾在州立法机构任职多年.S. Congress. Resigning from Congress when Alabama seceded from the Union, 库里加入了南方邦联军队的阿拉巴马第五团. Soon after the war, 库里被选为阿拉巴马州浸信会的主席，一个月后成为霍华德学院的校长. Curry was known for his staunch support of separation of church and state and for his promotion of free public education for all citizens. In later years Curry declined an appointment to head the U.S. Bureau of Education and was instead appointed to serve as U.S. Ambassador to Spain.
Howard College struggled to secure long-term leadership after the Civil War, running through several presidents in quick succession. Howard College professor 爱德华·奎恩·桑顿 was among them, serving from July 1868 through the end of the 1868-1869 session.
Thornton was listed as Howard College's fourth president as late as 1894, 但在澳门皇冠app官网历史的某个时刻，他就这样从集体记忆中消失了. Historian Mitchell Bennett Garret recorded his presidency in his Sixty Years of Howard College, 1842-1902, and James F. Sulzby used Garrett's information in his two-volume Toward A History of Samford University, but Thornton is otherwise overlooked. For decades, he has been excluded even from Samford's official tally of its fully-empowered presidents (as opposed to those who served in an interim capacity).
在霍华德学院担任化学和现代语言教授之前, 桑顿曾在阿拉巴马大学和欧洲多所大学学习. 他是众多教授之一, 那些离开霍华德去南方邦联军队服役的行政人员和学生, 从第39阿拉巴马步兵团的中尉晋升为助理副官. He returned to Howard only a few years before his elevation to the presidency.
Eight months before selecting Thornton as successor to the high-profile J. L. M. Curry, the trustees of the college announced to the state Baptist Convention that, “国家财政空前的衰退对学院的影响尤为严重." By July 1868 the trustees had abandoned hope of building the college's endowment and asked of Thornton, apart from tending the college's property, 只要他能让学院自给自足就行. They stepped back even from this goal, 最后同意了桑顿的还价，即只招收100名学生中的60名，以使学院能够自给自足, with the trustees taking responsibility for the remainder.
The college enrolled 115 students for the 1868-69 session even though Thornton established rigorous new entrance examinations in English, Latin, Greek and Algebra. 虽然表面上很成功, 桑顿发现他更喜欢课堂而不是总统职位，于是在学期结束时辞职，专注于霍华德大学和城市另一端的贾德森学院的教学. 他短暂的任期似乎是桑顿最终从澳门皇冠app官网校长的官方名单上消失的原因.
Samuel R. Freeman
Like E. Q. Thornton, Samuel R. 弗里曼担任霍华德学院校长的时间很短(1869年至1871年)，因为该学院在内战后努力寻找稳定的领导. Freeman, 校友和受托人, was recommended for the presidency by a fellow trustee who had just declined Freeman's offer of the position. 虽然对这一转变感到惊讶，弗里曼还是接受了总统职位.
The trustee who nominated Freeman for the presidency described the Tennessee native as "majestic in structure, 智力超群, 充满圣灵的能力.弗里曼一生都饱受眼部疾病的折磨，但他在霍华德大学读书时寄宿的寡妇家里找到了一些安慰. 弗里曼娶了寡妇, became a leading minister in the state and, as chairman of the education committee of the Alabama Baptist Convention, 在说服杰贝兹·拉马尔·门罗·库里担任1865年重新开放的霍华德学院校长的过程中发挥了关键作用. 弗里曼在跟随库里的脚步一年前才加入霍华德大学的董事会.
Freeman delighted in the new opportunity to serve the college, and dedicated his attention to increasing enrollment and re-opening Howard's Theological Department, 哪一所大学在战争期间与大多数其他学院一样停止了运作. He succeeded in the latter endeavor, 但一年的招生增长并没有改善学院的财务状况，因为太多的学生都是靠奖学金毕业的, IOUs or irregular payments for tuition. Enrollment dropped to previous levels in Freeman's second year in office, 离开学校时负债累累.
By 1871, Freeman had seen enough of life as a college president. Deciding, like E. Q. Thornton, that his true calling lay in his original profession, 他辞去了总统职位，转而在杰斐逊担任全职牧师, Texas. 一年后他就去世了, 就在他的母校在十年来一直寻求的长期领导下，进入了一个戏剧性的、有时颇具争议的转型时期.
James T. Murfee
James T. Murfee's tenure as president of Howard College (1871-1887) was exceptional in many ways, 尤其是因为不是墨菲离开了学院，而是学院离开了他. At 16 years, his service also was of exceptional length. In fact, Murfee's record as Samford's longest-serving president stood until the 1950's. His administration remains the fourth longest in the University's history.
Murfee, 他是土生土长的弗吉尼亚人，毕业于弗吉尼亚军事学院，在内战前成为阿拉巴马大学的数学教授，并担任过第41阿拉巴马团的中校和阿拉巴马大学学员团的指挥官. Reconstruction-era politics made Murfee feel unwelcome at UA after the war, so he brought his reputation for academic rigor and military discipline to struggling, debt-ridden Howard College in 1871.
Murfee seems to have thoroughly charmed the people of Marion, 十多年来，他第一次为学院提供了稳定的领导. He revitalized the academic program by creating a new academic structure based on small class size and individual attention and practice, and created a Business School and a School of Military Art and Science within the college.
He also imposed military discipline. 从1871年开始，墨菲要求学生在公共场合穿灰色军装. By the end of that decade military drill was a daily routine for many students and the college had begun to resemble a military academy.
在19世纪80年代初，由于对财政支持的不断呼吁，学院还清了债务，甚至还允许增加新的财产, but the trustees' voiding of scholarship certificates sold before the war led to an eight-year breach of contract lawsuit against the college. 这场诉讼于1883年以原告胜诉的判决结束，法院下令拍卖县法院台阶上的学院财产，以履行由此产生的财政义务. In 1884, 两位霍华德大学的受托人在拍卖会上以1美元的价格买下了学校的财产,1980年，他把财产交给了阿拉巴马浸信会.
拥有完全所有权，没有剩余债务, 大会认为，它终于能够为学院建立一个坚实的捐赠基金. 但县外的一些霍华德支持者担心，新的投资会在日渐衰落的马里恩浪费掉，而且学院在穆尔菲和当地受托人的控制下, who increasingly found themselves at odds with the Convention.
1886年，与公会就部长学生和宗教教员地位的持续争论以Murfee的胜利告终，他坚持认为霍华德不会免除部长学生的兵役和居住要求, 并且不允许议会决定教员的任命. 国民公会全体部长委员会辞职以示抗议, adding to growing tensions between the college's administrators and owners.
Also in 1886, 当霍华德学院的学生包围并殴打林肯师范学校的一名黑人学生时，马里昂日益加剧的种族紧张局势爆发了, 这名学生用刀砍伤了一些学生，一群白人公民随后威胁要烧毁这所在内战结束时建立的学校，这所学校是为了教育新解放的奴隶而建立的.
Lincoln was already pondering whether or not to stay in Marion or move to Montgomery or Birmingham, 与霍华德的冲突将林肯和霍华德的命运联系在一起. Lincoln supporters closely followed the growing debate among white Baptists over whether or not to move Howard, 以及霍华德大学的受托人, largely opposing the relocation of their own school, 散发了一份请愿书，要求把林肯师范学校从马里昂撤走.
在一封给 Marion Standard 报纸上的编辑 Alabama Baptist 解释了为什么他们拒绝发表一篇文章，把霍华德和林肯的矛盾作为搬走霍华德的充分理由. "Just at that time the citizens of Marion with people all over the state, 代表浸信会, Methodist and Presbyterian churches were earnestly laboring with the legislature to have the negro normal school removed from that place," they wrote, 人们严肃地质疑他们是否能成功, 我们的判断是, 那应该是这样一篇文章...appear [about moving Howard College]...大会的许多成员拒绝投票赞成取消黑人学院, 因此，在一个长期建立的白人学校社区中，一种制度[林肯]对善良的女性和无助的孩子来说是一种积极的威胁."
So, 种族问题在关于将霍华德学院迁离其诞生地的辩论中发挥了作用, 但学院也陷入了城乡文化、新旧经济和社会结构之间的紧张关系. 穆尔菲发现自己处于这场风暴的中心.
当穆尔菲与公会就部长学生的命运展开斗争时, the Convention considered relocating the college and all parties warily eyed Lincoln Normal School, 伯明翰的支持者们正在寻找新的机构来服务他们已有15年历史的社区. 1886年，大会在伯明翰召开会议，任命了一个委员会与伯明翰的土地公司展开谈判，并考虑该市对将霍华德学院迁往该地区的慷慨激励措施. Following rich promises of land and financial support, 霍华德学院于1887年搬迁到伯明翰的东湖社区.
The Marion Standard expressed outrage at Howard's removal. "A great act of injustice has been done the Baptists of Marion, who have so long and so faithfully worked to sustain the college, when the Baptists of North America were doing nothing," the editors wrote. “如果在原来的地方建立了另一所学校, 马里昂一点也不会因为取消霍华德学院而受到伤害.事实上，另一所学校在霍华德的位置上建立起来了. 国民公会把马里恩的财产还给了在拍卖会上买下它的两位受托人, and asked them to use the campus for the good of Marion. James Murfee, 他是霍华德学院唯一一位拒绝跟随学院前往伯明翰的教员, 租用了一年的学院财产，成立了马里恩军事学院. The institute thrived and Murfee eventually acquired the property in trust from its owners.
In spite of his own misgivings about the removal of Howard, 穆尔菲在因搬迁而分裂的浸信会各派之间扮演了调解人的角色. 与痛苦和受伤的感觉相比 Marion Standard, a letter from Murfee, published in the Alabama Baptist of August 5, 1887, expresses nothing but good will for Howard and its alumni:
These halls so dear to us all have been turned over to me for educational purposes; and I shall continue in them the same system of discipline and methods of instruction which I introduced in 1871.
I shall aim to train other young men as you were trained, and to make them like you in character, 流行度和实用性. 你的善行将被铭记, and your worthy examples held up as models for your successors.
The hearts of the good people of Marion will ever be with you; and we hope you may often be inclined to revisit the old college home--the scenes amid which you developed those elements of character which have been the foundation of your success and happiness. 在镇上和学校里，你会发现大门敞开，受到热烈欢迎.
Ever Your Friend
J. T. Murfee
至少在短期内，墨菲和其他反对霍华德搬迁的人是正确的. Howard College arrived in Birmingham to find that the city's generous promises of support had evaporated.
本杰明·富兰克林·莱利任职于澳门皇冠app官网历史上许多不稳定的时期之一. 当霍华德学院于1887年搬迁到伯明翰的东湖社区时，它留下了它的校长和几位受托人, not to mention the good will of some Alabama Baptists. Worst of all, the trustees discovered that an important section of the new campus site was not included in the donation of the East Lake Land Company, so they immediately had to purchase that additional property. Also, 尽管土地公司有着宏伟的梦想, 除了鲁哈马浸信会教堂外，新校区周围的农村地区几乎没有什么, which would serve as the spiritual home of the college through the 1950's, and the old school building of the defunct Ruhama Academy.
将霍华德学院带到伯明翰的经济泡沫破裂了，学校发现自己再次陷入严重的财政困境. 当受托人意识到学院的两座临时建筑将不得不比预期使用更长的时间时，丰厚的捐赠和宏伟的新设施的愿景就消失了. One trustee, 搬迁的支持者, proclaimed, "Well, 如果我知道我们没有房子的话, I should never have voted for removal."
At the college, the scene was anything but inviting. 在一片苍松丛中，有两栋仓促建造的木楼，相距很远. 周围的灌木丛未被清除, 一年多前为了给楼房腾出地方而被砍倒的树木还躺在地上. The remnants of the library were scattered and torn over the floor of an outhouse; pictures and broken furniture were piled in the corners of the limited hallways; the furniture of all the departments was old and rickety, 床上用品破旧不堪.
Howard's trustees had the unenviable task of persuading someone to preside over that uninspiring scene. 在B之前，有三名候选人拒绝担任总统. F. 1888年9月，莱利同意领导学院.
莱利是派恩维尔一个农民的儿子，是澳门皇冠app官网第一位土生土长的阿拉巴马总统. 厄斯金学院的毕业生, 是南方浸信会神学院和克罗泽神学院的一位著名牧师, editor of the Alabama Baptist newspaper and author of many books on Alabama history. 在接受总统职位之后, he acted quickly to stabilize and expand the college, 翻新旧的鲁哈马学院大楼, purchasing milk cows and planting a garden to supply the campus dining hall. He emphasized the moral as well as the academic and martial education offered by the college but, not surprisingly, 他似乎把大部分注意力都放在了避免金融灾难上.
到1889年，学院官员已经厌倦了伯明翰大学未能提供它所承诺的一切，他们公开调查放弃东湖的情况. 在此期间，霍华德的财务前景非常严峻，以至于一名财务代理人辞职，接替他的人评论道, "There are 75 men in this city who say they will give, 但他们都想成为最后一个, and how to make the whole 75 last is a mathematical problematical problem I have been unable to solve, 经过一天又一天的思考."
尽管时局艰难, the college pressed ahead on construction of a brick multipurpose building. The new building, 建于1891年，后来被称为“老美因”," was the architectural centerpiece of the new campus. New dormitories and other improvements followed soon after, but Howard's rural setting remained less than impressive. J. J. 1891年，芬克利陪儿子上大学, and as the pair approached the campus on foot the father asked, "My boy, how much farther? 我们不是快到那地方了吗?“是的，爸爸，”儿子回答，“就是这里。.芬克利端详着面前杂乱的松树和灌木丛，说, "but I didn’t know, my boy, that you were camped here in the woods."
A nationwide economic depression reduced Howard's enrollment in 1892 and Riley traveled around the state at his own expense to recruit students. Unfortunately, 他招募的许多人都需要额外的时间来支付学费, 迫使学院借了一年的资金. Riley noted midway through the 1892-93 session that although the college had not succumbed to despair, “人们已经意识到责任的重要性在不断增加, the appreciation of a burden growing heavier and heavier, and one which, 在案件的性质上, is growing still more heavy as the session advances."
Riley held out hope that the people of Birmingham would help the college in its time of greatest need, 尤其是他算出霍华德至少贡献了60美元,自学院进驻东湖以来，为城市的发展做出了贡献. 但到1893年初，该市的一场筹款活动只募集到2美元中的500美元,继续运营该学院需要5万美元. "The sources from which I have derived means to tide the college over the 'trying' periods of the past five years have now been exhausted," Riley lamented.
莱利本人似乎已经被经济困境弄得筋疲力尽. 他建议聘请一名全职的现场代理代表学院确保学生和捐赠基金的安全. Alternately, he said, the college could call on Baptist women in the state to raise money to build tenant houses on the campus. 他认为后一个项目可以提供租金和潜在的学生群体，增加校园财产的价值，并利用浸信会妇女的巨大影响力. 董事会最终还是听从了莱利关于全职外勤探员的建议, 但那时莱利已经开始新的生活了. He resigned at the end of the 1892-93 session in order to accept a position as professor of English literature at the University of Georgia.
In spite of the financial frustrations of this period and thanks to Riley's extensive recruiting efforts, the class of 1893 was the largest in the college's history. 霍华德的下一任校长也将创造历史，但只增加了五名学生.
A. W. McGaha
B. F. Riley, 在他担任霍华德学院校长的短短几年里, managed to keep the institution open and supplied with students. 当时发表的一封信对莱利赞不绝口，并对他的继任者提出了过于乐观的期望. "It seemed to have been necessary from unavoidable environments and the decree of a benignant Providence," B. H. 克兰普顿写到莱利, "that he should have commanded the ship and planned the voyage, until his youthful, symmetrical and brilliant successor, A.W. McGaha, D.D., 他是母校最伟大的儿子之一, 像一颗明亮的星星, arose in the wane of departing night, 预示一天的到来."
亚瑟·沃特金斯·麦格哈, 马歇尔郡人的儿子, Alabama, farmer, 是霍华德学院的第一位校友校长吗. After earning his Howard degree in 1881, 他就读于美南浸信会神学院, pastored two churches and accepted the call to lead Ruhama Baptist Church shortly after Howard College relocated to property adjacent to the church. This was a critically important time in the lives of both Howard and Ruhama, 这些机构将他们的财富捆绑在一起. 教会为学院提供了一个精神家园，也为吸引教职员工提供了一个领导的深井, 教师和学生. Likewise, 霍华德学院为东湖带来了学者，他们为鲁哈马浸信会教堂服务，也为澳门皇冠赌场平台.
Upon taking office in June 1893, McGaha took up perhaps the greatest burden his friend B. F. 莱利成功地招收了足够的学生(当时正值全国性的经济危机)，使学院得以运转. 麦加哈失败了，但学院在那年秋天如期开学，尽管进一步陷入债务之中.
该学院的财务状况非常糟糕，以至于董事会公开谴责自己未能改善财务状况, 甚至建议阿拉巴马浸信会大会取代整个董事会. 董事会保留了下来，但是, acting on suggestions made by Riley, 大会和霍华德校友, hired a full-time vice-president/financial agent to travel the state raising funds and recruiting students. The agent's success allowed Howard to make needed building repairs and improvements while the students, working voluntarily, 还对校园场地进行了很大的改善.
By the spring of 1894 Howard was physically much improved. Its fiscal health was another matter, although the new financial agent had secured promising new pledges of support. The year's decreased enrollment, indicative of a dangerous downward trend, was of special concern. This problem may have played some role in Howard's first experimentation with coeducation, led by McGaha.
男女同校已经在重塑阿拉巴马州其他学院的文化. Some Alabamians opposed this trend, but McGaha and his supporters persisted and prevailed. College records of the period suggest no great disruption resulting from the admission of two East Lake women, Annie Judge and Eugenia Weatherly, 在1894-95学年. In fact, 一些期待女性对最难对付的教员产生缓和影响的男学生，对他们的教授缺乏改变感到遗憾. The women proved to be excellent students, 1895-96学年，又有三位女学生加入. Unfortunately, 这几个女生的加入并不足以帮助学院摆脱日益增长的债务.
在那个学年结束之前, 该学院已经无法偿还抵押贷款，并且在十多年来第二次面临被迫公开拍卖校园的耻辱. 在1896年6月的年度受托人会议上, just weeks before the scheduled auction, McGaha noted that the college lacked the funds to pay its employees and proposed a radical, if temporary, solution. 他对董事会说:“按照现在的工资水平，学校负担不起。. "The institution can dispense with the president more easily than any professor," he added. He offered his resignation and the trustees immediately appointed professor A. D. Smith "chairman of the faculty and manager of the college."
比如霍华德大学校长塞缪尔. 弗里曼，麦格哈回到全职事工. 和弗里曼一样，他最终在德克萨斯州定居下来. 作为韦科第一浸信会的牧师，他领导着西南地区最大的教会. 但是，和弗里曼一样，麦加哈在离开大学后不久就去世了. 在他1901年去世时，他的前任，B. F. Riley. McGaha, he wrote, "possessed a combination of qualities rarely found in a man because of his boldness and tenderness, 坦率和同情, 勇气和温柔——所有这些都在需要的时候被运用和表现出来——这些使他能够接触到比任何一个人通常所能接触到的多得多的人群."
Coeducation at Howard faltered after McGaha's departure, but another pastor/president helped realize that bold vision a little over a decade later. But what of the financial catastrophe threatening Howard College at the time of McGaha's resignation? Rather than leaving the college without leadership at a moment of crisis, McGaha的决定可能帮助挽救了Howard. His successor, though understood to be merely a caretaker president, 安排了一场几乎和1884年一样戏剧性和不可思议的金融救援.
A. D. Smith
As a professor of mathematics and longtime business officer of Howard College, Albert Durant Smith must have been acutely aware of just how dire the college's circumstances were when he became president in the summer of 1896. 学校的财政问题已经赶走了前两任校长，学院的终结似乎近在眼前. 霍华德大学的受托人任命史密斯为“学院主席和学院经理”，而不到两周后，学院的财产将被取消赎回权，并由其抵押贷款的所有者公开拍卖.
Smith, a native of Georgia, had served Howard College in many capacities since arriving at the Marion campus in 1881. In addition to his service as a mathematics professor and business agent, 他是一位著名的纪律严明者，曾在J. T. Murfee. 后一种经验对史密斯很有帮助，他接受了拯救霍华德的挑战, make it self-sustaining and free it of crippling debt.
首先也是最重要的, 史密斯说服了他的朋友, Birmingham banker Burghard Steiner, to personally guarantee payment of a significant part of Howard's debt if the college's creditors would agree to extend payment deadlines. 债权人同意推迟取消抵押品赎回权, 但霍华德面临着如何筹集资金偿还债务的老问题. 学院再次向阿拉巴马的浸信会教徒求助.
应霍华德受托人的要求，三位伯明翰浸信会牧师，B. D. Gray, P. T. Hale and W. A. Hobson took months-long leaves of absence from their churches to raise the money needed to save Howard. The $16,他们筹到了1万美元——一半现金, 半质押——足以弥补拖欠的还款，防止止赎.
As the pastors undertook their work, Howard resolved a land dispute that had haunted the college since it arrived in East Lake. 东湖土地公司(East Lake Land Company)最终同意捐赠校园附近的土地，受托人认为这是该校搬迁的一部分激励因素.
As the campus grew, 史密斯继续并扩大了他的前任开始的改进项目, A. W. McGaha, adding new sidewalks and renovating buildings. The college still lacked necessary facilities, however. Citing the lack of appropriate facilities for women, Smith discontinued the experiment in coeducation that had given Howard its first female graduate, Annie Judge, in 1896. Of the other women enrolled at the college, 在宣布实验结束后，只有一个人以某种方式继续她的研究. Eugenia Weatherly graduated in 1898 with the first full, four-year Howard degree awarded to a woman. She would be the last female graduate for almost two decades.
The temporary end of coeducation corresponded with Smith's application of an almost military discipline to the daily life of the college. This included the creation of a student "officer of the day" and the strict regulation of time and tasks. Significantly, 学生们每周六早上只被允许在附近的伯明翰逗留四个小时. 这是这所大学的一大卖点, it seems, 它是从这个年轻的城市臭名昭著的“败坏士气的机构”中移除的吗. According to one observer, "every boy goes from chapel directly to his work. There is nothing but business through the whole day. Everything is done in systematic order."
Smith's administration sounds harsh to modern ears, but it seems to have inspired confidence and investment. 1897年初，在州浸信会教堂举行的霍华德大学日募捐活动进一步减少了学院的债务，并给了霍华德很快就能还清债务的希望.
By the end of the spring session, in only a year of service as president, A. D. Smith had led Howard toward a stability it had not enjoyed for over a decade. But, 就像他的前任一样, 他已经受够了这段经历，于是辞去了总统职务，开始了自己的商业生涯. For the fourth time in a decade, Howard sought new leadership.
Frank M. Roof
President A. D. 史密斯离开霍华德学院时，拥有了几十年来最坚实的财政基础. 他的继任者，肯塔基州出生的教育家弗兰克. Roof, 他将这一成就放大了许多倍，并且在霍华德搬到伯明翰后任职的时间比任何一位总统都长.
这位相对年轻的新总统(1897年就任总统时只有40岁)显然对体育特别感兴趣. 他建造了带热水的新学生浴室，并建造了一个健身房 Birmingham News 被认为是“阿拉巴马州所有学院中组织最好的体育馆”.这种对学生身心健康的重视很快就成为了这所大学的骄傲.
The tradition of Samford basketball began on Roof's watch, 虽然一开始对游戏规则有些困惑.
“每个人都有自己的篮子, 是谁主动提供的信息, no doubt, 比这个新游戏更熟悉摘棉花吗," reported 霍华德学院 student journal when the sport arrived at East Lake in 1900. According to the Collegian, one visionary student suggested that people might actually pay to view the new sport. 第二年年初，霍华德组建了第一支篮球队——墨西哥湾沿岸各州的第一支大学篮球队. 在两队的第一场校际比赛中，霍华德以12比7击败奥本大学. Howard created official baseball and football teams soon after the establishment of the basketball team.
Roof encouraged the expansion of the academic program as well, joining the faculty as a professor of psychology and pedagogy, adding botany and extending offerings in psychology, French and German. English was another curricular strong point and one observer reckoned that "the course in ancient languages is the best in the South."
鲁夫任期内的其他重要事件包括成立霍华德大学的第一个正式校友会(1899年), in 1902, 废除学院26年来对学生兄弟会组织的禁令.
Under Roof's administration Howard even managed to achieve one of its most elusive goals. Since glimpsing financial independence at the end of A. D. Smith's presidency, the trustees had held out hope that the college could be entirely free of debt within a few more years. 霍华德在1899年达到了这个目标, thanks largely to the generosity of Baptist supporters throughout the state and to Howard's faculty, which for years had funded all building repairs and improvements.
Howard's physical, financial and cultural growth under Frank M. 考虑到霍华德在被任命为总统前一年所面临的严重危险，鲁夫是了不起的. But he declined the trustees' invitation to continue in the office after 1902. The trustees reported that Roof declined on the grounds that "the salary is not in keeping with the arduous duties which the office requires." Roof began a new career selling real estate and insurance. Howard's trustees, 他们一致认为鲁夫的第一人选(著名浸信会牧师L. O. 道森)，在学院的竞争对手中找到了下一任校长.
Andrew P. Montague
Well-known Alabama Baptist leader L. O. Dawson declined the offer of Howard's presidency after Frank Roof's departure in 1902, as did Furman University president Andrew Phillip Montague, initially. 但是前总统A. D. Smith pressed Montague and finally persuaded him to accept Howard's offer.
Montague, a native Virginian, was by that time a respected classics scholar who had translated, 编辑并出版了西塞罗和普林尼的书信. He also was a champion fundraiser, 他更愿意把学院的大部分政策制定和日常运作交给学院的教职员工，这样他就可以代表学院在全国各地旅行. This he did enthusiastically and with tremendous success.
Montague seems to have had an uncanny ability to not only envision large new projects, 但也要迅速找到资金来完成它们. When he recognized the need for a new library and a building to house it, 他只是出去筹集所需的资金. 考虑到筹集75美元的目标,000 (equivalent to seven buildings the size of the new library) for Howard's endowment, 他比最后期限提前七个月筹到了钱.
蒙塔古的成功部分要归功于他的前任们在全州范围内对霍华德的热情. 特别是，蒙塔古在该州的浸信会妇女中找到了一个强大的筹款盟友. The Howard College Cooperative Society, founded by prominent Baptist women in the Birmingham area, 为霍华德的关键进球做出了贡献, including the library and endowment, a new dormitory and curricular expansion.
Although state Baptists can take credit for much of Howard's prosperity during Montague's administration, 总统的同时代人认识到他是一位独特的精力充沛的领导人. 当时的一位浸信会领袖回忆说，为了筹集建造新宿舍的资金, Renfroe Hall, Montague "literally walked that money down in this district, tramping the streets of Birmingham and the surrounding towns, 他差点儿走进坟墓.事实上，霍华德的"无敌总统"是 The Birmingham News once called him, 旅行超过11次,000 miles in Alabama in a single year at one point, gathering both money and students in record-breaking amounts.
蒙塔古在事业上的巨大成功在1905-1906学年结束时受到了个人悲剧的影响, when his wife, 梅·克里斯蒂安·蒙塔古, died of cancer. It was said that she was his inspiration and aid in all his work for Howard, 所以在她死后两周, 霍华德大学的受托人投票决定以她的名字命名新建成的图书馆大楼. 一年后，蒙塔古娶了一位伍德劳恩本地人(艾玛·弗洛伦斯·伍德饰).
蒙塔古延续了霍华德最近对运动作为全面教育的一部分的强调. "Go in for baseball, and tennis, and other clean, manly sports," he advised the Howard students, 他们似乎听从了这个建议. 足球这项新运动引起了极大的兴趣和热情. 霍华德大学在1902年秋天组建了第一支正式的橄榄球队，并与马里恩军事学院进行了第一场校际足球比赛(取得了胜利), which had literally taken Howard's place in Marion.
The familiar accoutrements of college athletics soon followed. In 1904, 霍华德大学的教师要求学生运动员在每门课程中达到80%的最低标准(如果他们希望加入多个团队，则达到85%)。. In 1906, Howard added a playing field behind the college's main building. Howard first offered full athletic scholarships in 1907.
Howard's cadet corps continued to hold an honored position at the college, and the organizers of the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair imported a contingent of Howard cadets to perform military drill exhibitions at the fair. By coincidence, 伯明翰在博览会上的另一个代表——雕塑家朱塞佩·莫雷蒂的火神雕像, 它是古罗马的火神，如今距离澳门皇冠app官网的霍姆伍德校区只有几英里远.
从纪律案件的数量和校规的收紧来看, 霍华德大学的学生似乎越来越倾向于冒险去伯明翰, 在那些日子里因酒吧和妓院而臭名昭著. 那些不幸被抓到在城里喝酒的学生被“校园逮捕”长达数月之久, or even permanently.
Howard junior Albert Lee Smith made the best of the official anxiety over the students' city excursions, proposing that he be allowed to operate the first Howard college bookstore beneath the stairs of Renfroe Hall, thus eliminating the need for students to venture into Birmingham for school supplies. Smith, a trusted officer of the cadet corps, took orders for a variety of goods, purchased them himself in Birmingham and sold them for a profit on campus. Howard officials knew a good idea when they saw one, 但他很有礼貌，直到毕业后才接手史密斯的生意.
霍华德在这段时间的相对繁荣, its athletics boom, 1902年废除了对学生兄弟会组织的禁令，随后兄弟会和俱乐部的蓬勃发展激发了一种新的学生出版物, Entre Nous ("between us"). This annual publication was a rich and unprecedented record of student life at Howard.
在蒙塔古时代，浸信会对霍华德的未来寄予厚望，以至于在1906年阿拉巴马浸信会大会上，未来的霍华德校长T. V. 尼尔建议学院的受托人制定一项20年计划，以创建一所综合性的“千万美元大学”,被命名为伯明翰大学, with Howard College remaining at its core. 尼尔的愿景很受欢迎，但过于乐观，不合时宜.
Howard's finances became strained again after an economic depression in 1908. In 1910, seeing that Howard's coffers were empty and large debts were outstanding, the faculty reminded Montague that their already meager salaries had often been overdue in recent years. Cash-flow problems, they said, had negatively affected their credit and, by implication, 学院的声誉.
1909年的一项政策是向必须复试的学生收取费用，这一政策起到了双重作用:一方面增加了霍华德大学的收入，另一方面鼓励学生第一次就通过考试. In 1910 the faculty made more serious recommendations to relieve the financial strain, 包括要求所有未偿还的学生债务，并要求学生在入学时几乎立即支付学费.
The faculty also required Montague to pass along to the trustees and the state Baptist convention a report of the college's funds and increasing debt. 听到报告后, 受托人强调，校长和教职员工应该调整他们的工作，以适应“我们收入的限制”," and as a result Montague made deep cuts in the faculty budget. The endowment, on the other hand, was more than $80,000 and Montague remained optimistic enough about Howard's future to propose construction of a new gymnasium.
Although Montague was tirelessly forward-thinking in terms of the growth of Howard College, he was very much a traditionalist and critic of what he viewed as the secularization of education. In a 1909 sermon at Ruhama Baptist Church, Montague excoriated the faculty of other colleges who, he said, scorned tradition, criticized the national government, disdained religion and either revised the Bible "to suit latter-day scholarship" or discarded it altogether. Two years later he declared that "no professor has the right to force his infidel beliefs on a student, and if I should learn of an instructor in this [Howard] college, who was an infidel, 我会立即召开会议，想办法把他解雇." In spite of such strident beliefs, 蒙塔古带领霍华德大学与阿拉巴马大学合作，成立了阿拉巴马大学协会, 根据国家标准促进了阿拉巴马州学校的改善.
Under A. P. Montague, Howard College enjoyed the greatest success of its history, but a decade in one place was enough for the president. 蒙塔古在1911-1912学年结束时辞去了他的职务，离开去领导佛罗里达州的哥伦比亚学院. Howard's next president served only half as long as Montague, but he immediately, radically and permanently changed the culture of the college.
James M. Shelburne
The presidents who preceded James M. 谢尔本对霍华德学院的福利和地位作出了重大贡献, 但他们的成就都不如谢尔本在现代澳门皇冠赌场平台的成就引人注目. 澳门皇冠赌场平台的音乐、教育和新闻项目都要归功于谢尔本. 澳门皇冠app官网的女学生, who now significantly outnumber the men, have Shelburne to thank for establishing coeducation as well.
Shelburne, a Kentucky native with degrees from Georgetown College and Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, was introduced to Howard College via Ruhama Baptist Church, his first pastorate. He served the Howard community as both pastor and professor during the early years of the century but eventually returned to Georgetown to earn a D.D. degree. When Howard College again called on his services in 1912, he was leading a church in Bristol, Virginia.
Shelburne eased into the presidency (and out of it, coincidentally) over a period of half a year. Howard's trustees elected him in the summer of 1912 but he didn't begin his service until January 1913.
Shelburne had strong connections to Alabama Baptist culture through Ruhama, 霍华德和他的妻子, 玛莎·华盛顿·克伦普顿, whose parents were highly regarded Alabama Baptists. At 46 years of age, he was 13 years younger than his predecessor. 这些因素可能有助于解释他如何能够以精力充沛和大胆的方式开始他的总统任期.
Shelburne quickly ended Howard's military education program, a Howard tradition of over three decades, 理由是它的受欢迎程度正在下降，并且干扰了学院不断发展的体育项目. More importantly, 他安排了一场革命，在9月11日招收了10名年轻女性成为霍华德大学的学生, 1913. From that day forward, Howard College was coeducational. Unfortunately, official records from Shelburne's era are all but silent on the return of coeducation. 也许总统在决定女性应该有机会接受霍华德大学的教育时考虑到了他的三个女儿.
不管谢尔本的个人动机是什么，他在给美国大学的公开信中并没有提到男女同校 Alabama Baptist shortly after the college opened that fall. Howard's trustees, in their November 1913 report to the Alabama Baptist Convention, offered only a brief note about the change.
"The college now admits to its classes resident young women," they wrote. "Ten of these young women have matriculated and are proving themselves to be most satisfactory students."
一个不知名的学生的诗 Entre Nous 在突如其来的文化变迁中，记录了一定程度的可预见的张力.
Shelburne was responsible for many impressive "firsts" at Howard College, and more than a few of these benefited the women students.
In 1915, Howard became the first college in the South Atlantic region to offer journalism courses. 第二年，新闻系被赋予系级地位，在该方案中，一些妇女获得了甚至该地区大多数男子都无法获得的专业教育. The journalism program created Howard's student newspaper, The Crimson, still publishing almost a century later.
Shelburne created the position of Dean of Women to support the coeds as well as teach. In 1915 he appointed to that position Nannie Hiden, who, 在接受一位女学生记者的采访时, 抨击官方性别歧视的不公正，并预测即使在保守的南方，选举权也会最终取得胜利.
In 1916 alone, Lula Mehaffey became Howard's first female graduate since 1898, 霍华德举办了第一届男女同校派对, and the Howard women formed the college's first sorority (Theta Xi) and its first women's basketball team. The following year, 学院75周年校庆, Howard College heard its first female commencement speaker.
由于经济和文化冲突，霍华德与伯明翰市的关系有时会变得紧张, 但谢尔本促进了与伯明翰的接触, not just through its Baptist churches, but also through its other religious, cultural and economic institutions.
Notwithstanding the old fights with students over the corrupting influence of the city, 霍华德的领导们欢迎将伯明翰有轨电车服务延伸到东湖. 从1913年3月开始, 伯明翰每隔10分钟向他招手, but discipline problems actually seem to have declined. In 1915, 决心创建一个音乐系, Shelburne added to the faculty professional music educators from the city's Southern School of Musical Art. He called on a well-known city bandleader to create and instruct a Howard College band. Shelburne also added to the faculty the Rabbi of Birmingham's Temple Emanu-El, 他后来在学院的筹款委员会任职(据说在筹款过程中，谢尔本将教育事业置于宗派事业之上)。.
谢尔本还带领霍华德加入了伯明翰商会, noting that, "Howard wants an active part in the upbuilding of Birmingham, 我们希望与城市的公民和工业活动更紧密地联系在一起."
The War in Europe made "upbuilding" of the college somewhat more difficult after 1914, but the greater problems for Howard arrived after the U.S. entered the war in the spring of 1917.
由于男性学生参军，秋季入学人数下降了20%. The war ultimately claimed Howard's president as well. In the fall of 1917 Shelburne requested, and was granted, a leave of absence to enter uniformed service and supervise educational programs at Camp Wheeler in Macon, Georgia. College Dean J. C. 道森在谢尔本不在的时候管理霍华德.
With the president in uniform and Howard's male students preparing for war, 女学生们利用空闲时间在伦弗罗大厅一间特别布置的编织室里为士兵们缝制衣服. As further contribution to the war effort, Howard undertook to raise as much of its own food as possible, 买了母鸡来供应鸡蛋，买了一头骡子来耕种三英亩的土地，种蔬菜.
Shelburne returned to Howard in January 1918 in order to help raise funds for the college's endowment. 筹款进行得很顺利, 几乎没有理由认为谢尔本不会在战争结束后回来，带领学院进一步戏剧性地发展. But, like other of Howard's pastor-presidents, 1918年3月，谢尔本决定，他对牧师的呼召比他对教育管理的呼召更重要. 他辞去总统职务，为加兹登第一浸信会服务. 霍华德学院经历了动荡的几年.
Charles B. Williams
Howard College in the years 1917 through 1921 was greatly unsettled by the war in Europe. J. M. 谢尔本在霍华德担任总统期间请假，以便在军队服役. After his resignation in March 1918, Howard's trustees appointed dean of faculty John C. Dawson to serve as acting president. 但是，道森也很快获准休假去美国服役.S. 法国陆军教育公司. Mathematics professor Theophilus R. Eagles then served as acting president (or acting-acting president) until the trustees finally secured a new president in mid-summer 1919.
On paper, at least, 北卡罗来纳州人查尔斯·布雷·威廉姆斯似乎是霍华德学院校长的理想人选. 据他女儿说, 夏洛特·威廉姆斯, Williams was "the scholar in a farm family of six children,他把拉丁文书绑在犁柄上，这样他就可以一边工作一边学习. By 1919, 威廉姆斯作为一名牧师、一位备受尊敬的学者和资深的希腊语和新约教授而闻名. His translation of the Greek New Testament, in progress while he served Howard, was an influential and important work, 至今仍在印刷中. But, for all that, the Williams administration ended abruptly and bitterly.
Like J. M. Shelburne, Williams sought to link Howard's future to Birmingham's, and his downfall was in leading a campaign to relocate the college closer to the heart of the city. As in the 1880's, supporters of moving Howard questioned the value of investing further in a campus whose isolation and aging facilities were seen to limit the college. 校友反对搬迁, accurately pointing out that the move from Marion had bitterly divided state Baptists for decades. 但教职员工和校董都支持搬迁, and in late summer 1920 Williams announced that the trustees had selected and purchased options on 120 acres in Woodlawn for a new campus, 并停止了对东湖校区的投资.
As the relocation debate simmered, Williams led a new endowment and debt reduction campaign, succeeding in a short time in eliminating all of Howard's outstanding debt, 捐赠增加到400美元,并将教员工资提高了20%. 不到一个月后，威廉姆斯宣布再次竞选. He proposed to raise an additional $500,000 to create an endowment of almost $1 million.
This, he said, would allow the college to relocate, establish a hospital and a department for the study of medicine, and create "one of the finest technological departments, including a first-class engineering school, in the South.“如果说他对霍华德未来的设想是错误的，那么他对伯明翰的设想则是不可思议的. "The city needs an engineering school and other technical schools and it needs a great medical school," he said.
校友反对搬迁, combined with the vagaries of the economy, foiled the president's plans for Howard and Birmingham. In early May 1921, 威廉姆斯宣布他将离开一段时间，然后就再也没有回到办公室. 在他发表于《澳门皇冠app官网》的辞职信中，充满了一丝苦涩 The Birmingham News several weeks after his departure:
Whereas, it seems impossible, 面对可怕的金融萧条, 在不久的将来筹集到将霍华德学院迁往伍德劳恩高地所需的五十万美元, according to resolutions adopted by the Board of Trustees; whereas, it is my conviction that my high ideal of the Greater Howard, for the education of thousands of youths for the glory of God, could scarcely, if at all, be realized at East Lake; whereas, 我确信在这种情况下, 我不能最好地侍奉上帝, 或者帮助人类, or do my full duty to my family; Therefore, 特此向校董会提出辞去霍华德学院校长一职，自6月1日起生效, 1921.
The letter also provides a tantalizing clue to Williams' sudden departure. "As a true sport I take my hat off to the winners of the game--the East Lake minority," Williams wrote. James F. Sulzby, Jr., on whose research and writing this series is based, noted that "the friends of Howard in East Lake concluded it would be easier to remove Dr. 而不是反对将霍华德学院从他们的社区中移除.目前尚不清楚他们是如何做到这一点的. Sulzby wrote only that "personal unpleasantries and innuendos had caused Dr. 威廉姆斯在学院的任期变得复杂而无效.威廉姆斯的妻子在此期间病了(不久后就去世了)。, and that may have contributed to the pressures that drove him from Howard.
Whatever the cause of Williams' departure, it does not seem to have hindered his career. After leaving Howard he joined the faculty of Mercer University, 当时的联合大学, building a distinguished record of scholarship and service to the Baptist denomination.
查尔斯·布雷·威廉姆斯给霍华德带来了宗教复兴的精神, presided over record enrollments and admission to the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, raised large sums of cash for the endowment and found majority support for a bold institutional vision. 这还远远不够, but Williams eventually won vindication for the most controversial aspect of his vision. 霍华德学院新校区的建设始于1953年，也就是他去世后的第二年.
In the wake of this troubled period of war, caretaker presidents and bitter internal struggles, 霍华德转向一个熟悉这所大学的人, 了解总统职位, 也许最重要的是, enjoyed the support of the entire Howard community.
John C. Dawson
John C. Dawson was a native of Huntsville, Alabama, but lived there only a short time. His family relocated to Kentucky after his father died, the year after Dawson's birth. Dawson returned to Alabama as an educator, 首先在斯科茨伯勒和, starting in 1903, at Howard College.
By 1921 Dawson had given notable service to Howard as a professor of modern languages, college dean and acting president. 他也曾休过很长时间的假——先是去监督驻法国美军的教育工作，然后去哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)完成博士学位.
查尔斯·布雷·威廉姆斯于1921年突然辞职, leaving hard feelings and ruptured relationships at the college. Needing first and foremost to heal the wounds of recent years and create a stable administration, Howard's trustees turned to the trusted and well-liked Dawson, 谁获得了博士学位.D. the day after his predecessor's official resignation.
In return, Dawson provided a decade of stable leadership and steady institutional growth. 但是威廉姆斯和J. M. 谢尔本的目标是做大, 对霍华德未来的大胆设想, Dawson seems to have focused on progress by small increments.
One of Dawson's most innovative and farsighted policies allowed faculty to take leaves of absence, at half-pay, to complete doctorates and thus boost the college's reputation as they added value to their teaching. Dawson also presided over the addition of a science building, gymnasium, residence hall for women and a state-of-the-art athletic field; a surge in postwar enrollment (a 40 percent increase in 1921); a boom in academic societies; expansion of the Crimson; a first attempt at creating a pharmacy program; and creation of an academic journal dedicated to the scholarship of Howard faculty.
道森最长寿的政策是禁止跳舞，理由是跳舞“不利于课堂学习效率”，而且“阿拉巴马州的浸信会教徒反对跳舞”." That policy, 它存活了60多年, 是普遍镇压(还是复兴)的一部分, 取决于个人的观点). 道森还要求学生在毕业典礼上背诵一篇特别的学生祷文. And although Birmingham officially was considered a friend of the college, Dawson prohibited unnecessary visits. "A student who keeps continually running to town can be assured of a private interview," he warned.
就像之前和之后的大多数总统夫人一样, Dawson's wife, Fletcher Stinson, was an active participant in the life of the college. 事实上，从1921年到1927年去世，她一直担任霍华德大学的社会主任. Within a few years of her death John C. 道森决定，为澳门皇冠赌场平台近三十年, 包括当了10年总统, was long enough.
A summer abroad in 1930 reminded the president of his love for teaching romance languages and literature. 同年秋天，他宣布辞职，并于1931年2月离开办公室，前往欧洲进行长时间的旅行，然后加入阿拉巴马大学，担任罗马语系主任. 让霍华德学院的人大吃一惊, the trip also served as a honeymoon for Dawson and Avis Marshall, Howard's recently-hired librarian.
1921年到1931年, 霍华德大学的招生人数增加了大约1人,000名学生和超过一倍的捐赠, 但也积累了100美元,000 in debt. 随着大萧条的发展, 道森离开了，希望霍华德能找到一位有热情和智慧的新校长来拯救学院. Howard found such a president by the end of the decade, 但在此之前，学院经历了一段痛苦而混乱的时期，被指控为共产主义阴谋，学生们发起了一场激进的运动, 教职员工和校友要求罢免校长.
Thomas V. Neal
Thomas V. 尼尔在一个特别危险的时刻接受了霍华德学院的校长一职. 前任总统, 注意到日益加深的经济萧条, recognized that Howard needed new ideas and expertise if it was to survive the crisis. 尼尔似乎是这份简报的最佳人选.
出生在西乔治亚州, Neal was raised on a farm and worked his way through school, serving as a laundry boy at Howard College to pay his tuition. 1902年从霍华德大学毕业后，尼尔进入神学院学习，并在德克萨斯州做了20多年的牧师和教育家. 当霍华德把他叫回母校时，他在俄克拉何马浸会大学(Oklahoma Baptist University)担任行政人员时，已经证明了自己在筹款和机构发展方面的专长.
Neal's first year as president was consumed by simply saving the college from the effects of the depression. 他进行了广泛的招募工作，并叫停了他继承的一个多功能圆形剧场的建设, 意识到这笔钱有更迫切的用途, material and energy. 在这一危机时期，教师们只是无偿工作. By late 1933, Howard had reduced expenses enough that it was slowly emerging from its financial crisis.
Neal not only managed to save Howard, he actually expanded its curriculum and faculty and significantly improved its facilities. 联邦援助增加了入学人数，尼尔甚至设法提高了教师的工资. 不要忘记学生, he apparently declined to enforce the strict anti-dancing policies of his predecessor and built a new house for every Howard sorority.
Even in the darkest days of the depression, Neal kept faith in what Howard could become. 令人怀疑的是，该州或邻近地区是否有任何一所大学像霍华德大学那样经受住了经济风暴的考验," he said in 1934. Howard, he predicted, would soon enjoy an unprecedented "broadening and deepening of academic work."
尼尔的乐观是有道理的. Howard seems to have been amazingly healthy by the middle of the decade, and in 1936 the Crimson 宣称，“快乐的日子又来了。." As evidence of this it offered, among other things, the observation that the faculty had bought more new cars in that year than in the entire previous decade.
到1936年，霍华德已经成为SBC系统中的第二大学院，甚至有希望很快就能还清大部分债务. Clearly, Neal had justified the trustee's faith in him to save the college. 然而，仅仅在混乱的几年后，尼尔就被迫下台.
看来尼尔的成功也是他的厄运. He accrued to himself a great deal of power over college affairs, and although his decisions often served the college well, his unilateral decision-making alienated many students, faculty and alumni. Even some trustees feared to oppose Neal.
Tension over Neal's management style erupted into public view in 1938 when he clashed with the students over control of student activities fees. Threatened by increasing student dissent, Neal dug in, suspending some students who criticized the college. 在大萧条最严重的几年里，为了维持学院的运转，教职员工做出了巨大的牺牲，这给他们带来了冲突.
When students called for the creation of a scholarship to benefit the president of the student body, with funds to be raised from student fees, Neal opposed the idea on the grounds that it was "opposed to the college's principles.尼尔最近曾争取要求部长级学生支付学费(此前有全额奖学金的传统)，他对奖学金提案的反对使学生的意见越过了临界点. 据称，教师敦促学生“旷课”...and weave among the student body for a poll on student feeling.一个学生会委员会得出结论，尼尔应该辞职.
一位霍华德大学的教授暂时平息了学生们的情绪, but Neal pressed the issue by expelling the president of the student body. Faculty successfully intervened again, this time on behalf of the student. The immediate crisis had been averted, 但学生们很快投票决定为学生会主席设立奖学金, 不顾尼尔的反对. 学生们再次要求尼尔辞职, 校友和教职员工现在也加入了这场运动, formally requesting that the trustees remove the president.
Neal responded to the increasing pressure by charging that communists were behind the movement against him. 校董会没有发现共产主义渗透大学的证据, but nevertheless rejected the calls for Neal's resignation. Neal won the battle, but lost the war.
尼尔意识到自己的职位难以为继，于1939年1月宣布辞职. He finished the academic year and departed at the end of June, 几个月前，霍华德校友会主席声称尼尔和一名受托人合谋解雇了他, 以节约成本为借口, some of the faculty who had dared to oppose the president. To make matters worse, Howard's accreditation status was now in jeopardy. 对于一位带领学院度过了大萧条的严重危险的校长来说，这是一个不幸的结局.
Harwell G. Davis
1939年，哈维尔·古德温·“少校”戴维斯(Harwell Goodwin“Major”Davis)担任了一所以基督教监狱改革家约翰·霍华德(John Howard)命名的学院的校长，这似乎尤为合适. 在本世纪初担任阿拉巴马州司法部长, Davis helped expose and end the state's convict lease system, which amounted to a government-sponsored slave trade. 为国家服务, and in his service in combat during WWI, Davis had proven himself a gifted leader. 在尼尔总统任期的文化崩溃之后, 戴维斯看上去一定是一个安全而稳定的人物. But who could have foreseen just how well he would lead Howard College through the dramatic changes to come?
Ironically, World War II, the greatest challenge Davis faced, 使他代表霍华德大学取得两项伟大成就成为可能——帮助学院在战争时期蓬勃发展，并搬迁到一个足够大的校园，以容纳顽强的学生, decades-old vision of a greater Howard.
Howard's fiscal health seemed to be steadily improving from the depths of the depression. With the considerable guidance of prominent businessman Frank Park Samford, 新当选的董事会主席, 学院继续削减债务，保持财政稳定. The freshman class of 1940 was 10 percent larger than the previous year's, 还有霍华德百年校庆筹款活动，旨在消除霍华德的所有债务，增加校园设施，以容纳越来越多的学生. 但当学院准备庆祝它的成立时，战争再次威胁到它的生存. Even before the U.S. entered the war against the Axis, enrollment slumped and some faculty departed for military service.
这所学院的年轻人和教职员工都在打仗，怎么能生存下去呢? 戴维斯并没有试图将大学从动员国家战争机器的道路上移除，而是回答了这个问题, but by making the college a valuable part of its mechanism. First, 霍华德同意举办一个民用飞行员培训项目，学员将与学院的其他学生一起学习. A Navy Air Corp program followed soon after and in 1943 the Navy awarded Howard a contract to host one of its large V-12 training programs. This brought the college the money and male students it needed to survive.
事实上，这所学院蓬勃发展. So valuable was the V-12 contract that in 1944 Howard enjoyed its best fiscal health in a decade. By 1945, 霍华德已经还清了债务, thanks not only to the V-12 program but also to continued support from state Baptists. The Navy program ended in fall 1945, and although Howard had to return some of the V-12 funds, Davis set aside much of the remaining wartime windfall in the hope that it would allow Howard to relocate.
自从1887年霍华德学院从马里昂搬迁以来，就一直在公开讨论从东湖搬迁的问题. 尽管搬迁的主张通常会与校友发生冲突, it was clear by the 1940's that Howard must either have more room to grow or simply stop growing. The problems of the East Lake campus became even more acute as Howard reaped the rewards of the GI Bill, which gave returning veterans the opportunity to continue disrupted educations or afford education that would otherwise have been beyond their reach, financially.
In early 1947 Howard made official overtures for land in Birmingham's Lane Park and Roebuck communities, 但到了夏天，他们已经在湖滨大道买下了225英亩土地. The idea was to not only relocate Howard to the new site, but also to relocate and incorporate Judson College as well. Little could be done to derail Howard's relocation, but opposition to relocating Judson prevented the creation of a Judson-Howard College.
尽管《澳门皇冠app官网》的影响在20世纪50年代初有所减弱，战争再次使学院感到不安, Howard pressed ahead with relocation to Lakeshore Drive. Only a handful of its planned facilities were complete at the time of the move in 1957, 但学院独特的建筑统一性已经很明显. Davis rejected advice to select modern designs for the buildings, 更喜欢格鲁吉亚殖民风格，这成为新校园的主要吸引力.
戴维斯见证了学院在新校区的第一年，然后离开了. He had saved the college during wartime, given it the means to reach its full potential and expanded its academic programs without abandoning its distinctive cultural mission. For these reasons his presidency, 到那时为止最长的, was the only one to leave an impression of completion, 尽管新校区大部分都不完整. 为了实现戴维斯对校园的全面设想，霍华德求助于莱斯利. Wright.
Howard College president Harwell Goodwin Davis led the college through its second major relocation, then stepped down in 1958 after almost two decades of service. The Georgian-Colonial campus he envisioned would soon appear, 但就目前而言，这里是一片泥泞的海洋，只有几座建筑. 新任总统莱斯利. Wright, would help realize Davis' vision, 领导进入大学的道路，并监督自学院成为男女同校以来最重大的文化变革.
Wright, a Birmingham native, completed his education in Kentucky before returning to Alabama as a teacher and coach before WWII. 在担任美国大使之后.S. 南太平洋的海军情报官, 赖特曾为联邦政府工作，并最终担任美国联邦调查局的助理.S. Senator Lister Hill. At the time Wright was called to Howard, 他在阿拉巴马浸信会基金会工作了好几年.
As a private segregated institution, Samford University was to some degree insulated from the events that defined Birmingham and the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950's and early 1960's. 但越来越多的澳门皇冠app官网教师和学生反对种族隔离, and by the late 1960's changing laws made racist policies untenable even for private universities.
Although the desegregation of Samford proceeded peacefully, 赖特经常就其他大学政策和总统权力的范围与教职员工和学生发生冲突. In spite of this internal strife, 赖特在澳门皇冠app官网任职的时间比之前和之后的任何总统都长. 从1983年退休到1997年去世，他一直担任大学校长.
In his 25 years as president, Leslie S. 赖特帮助实现了几十年来“更伟大的霍华德”的愿景.他的继任者托马斯. Corts, 继续走同样的路线, 培养一个不断扩大的校园和学术项目，主要是由于比森家族的礼物.
Thomas E. Corts
Born in Terre Haute, Indiana, 在阿什塔布拉长大, Ohio, Corts was one of seven siblings and the oldest brother to answer a calling other than full-time ministry. 尽管在他年轻的时候，他积极参与教会活动，以至于高中同学都开玩笑地称他为“牧师”," Tom Corts did not dream of a career in the pulpit. 事实上，他对从事新闻工作的前景更感兴趣. 十几岁时在当地报社工作, Corts报道了周五晚上的足球比赛, 在场边与球员和教练混在一起，但从未想过有一天他会承担起整个大学体育项目的最终责任.
It was not until attending Georgetown College that Corts began to glimpse how he might combine his faith, his love for education and his family's tradition of service. With the guidance and interest of Georgetown President Robert L. Mills, Corts found an aptitude for and interest in the behind-the-scenes work of higher education. 从乔治敦大学毕业后，科茨获得了硕士学位.A. and Ph.D. degrees from Indiana University and served as executive vice president at Georgetown College before becoming president of Wingate College in 1974.
After becoming president of Samford University in 1983, Corts led the most dramatic period of growth in the university’s history. 澳门皇冠赌场平台现在是南方地区排名前五的大学之一, regularly posts record enrollments, 提供丰富的国际学习经验，在创新教学和本科生研究方面享有越来越高的声誉. Corts also led many major building projects and nurtured an endowment of over $200 million.
In addition to his presidency of Samford, Corts曾担任南方学院和学校协会(SACS)的学院委员会主席。, president of SACS, 美国独立学院和大学校长协会主席以及阿拉巴马州宪法改革公民协会主席.
In 2003, Samford University produced a special edition of 世界上最伟大的东西 亨利·德拉蒙德的书，其中包括托马斯·E. 和玛拉·哈斯·科茨. To reserve your copy, please email email@example.com.
Dr. 安德鲁·威斯特摩兰(Andrew Westmoreland)带领大学树立了丰富和扩大对学生服务的愿景，并进一步激发他们满足世界需求的愿望. 为了推进这一愿景，大学致力于一项具有挑战性的战略计划，其中包括四个优先事项:强调学生的成功, 加强我们的社区, extend our reach, 确保资金实力. Forever Samford, a six-year, $300 million capital campaign launched to support the plan, 是澳门皇冠赌场平台179年历史上规模最大的一次. Funding from the campaign will help to ensure that Samford continues to prepare and send dedicated, 有思想有道德的人走向世界.
在他被澳门皇冠app官网校董会选为校长之前, 他曾担任瓦希托浸会大学校长八年, and, prior to that, on the administrative staff for more than 19 years in various capacities, 包括发展副总裁和执行副总裁.
Westmoreland is a graduate of Ouachita, having received a bachelor's degree in political science in 1979. He earned a master's degree in political science from the University of Arkansas at Fayetteville, and a doctorate in higher education administration from the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. 他出生于阿肯色州贝茨维尔地区，1975年毕业于贝茨维尔高中. He is married to Dr. Jeanna Westmoreland, who served as professor of education and dean of Ouachita's School of Education. 威斯特摩兰夫妇有一个女儿莱利，她毕业于澳门皇冠赌场平台.
Beck A. Taylor
Beck A. Taylor came to Samford University after serving as the 18th president of Whitworth University in Spokane, Washington, since 2010. 在此任命之前, Taylor served as dean and professor of economics for Samford’s Brock School of Business (2005-2010), 1997-2005年担任贝勒大学汉卡默商学院负责研究和教师发展的副院长.
Taylor's tenure at Whitworth was highlighted by a renewed emphasis on community involvement; efforts to enhance academic programs and quality; the building of new campus infrastructure to facilitate the university's academic, athletic, and student life programs; the creation of newly endowed faculty positions and centers; leading Whitworth's largest-ever comprehensive fundraising campaign; and an emphasis on overall institutional effectiveness.
After earning his undergraduate degree from Baylor with majors in economics and finance, Taylor was employed as an analyst for Andersen Consulting (now Accenture) in Houston, Texas. 他后来获得了硕士学位.S. and Ph.D. in economics from Purdue University. 回到贝勒学院后，泰勒被任命为第一位W奖获得者.H. Smith Professorship in Economics. In 2002, he was appointed as a visiting scholar by Harvard University where he spent one year in residence at the Harvard Graduate School of Education.
作为澳门皇冠赌场平台布鲁克商学院的院长, Taylor led the rapid transformation of the business school, including its renaming to honor Harry B. Brock, Jr.他是指南针银行的创始人. 泰勒领导布鲁克商学院建立了8个新的学术项目, 还有学校新的荣誉项目. The school's entrepreneurship program was recognized in 2010 as the nation's top emerging program by the U.S. 小型企业协会 & Entrepreneurship. 为了在学生和伯明翰商界之间架起桥梁, 泰勒建立了澳门皇冠app官网商业网络, as well as a 45-member advisory board of the region’s top business leaders.